The Canary database curators determine, for each included study, the
type of study methodology employed by the researchers (using
this classification protocol).
The possible categories are:
Fox has outlined criteria for objectively evaluating the relationship
between an environmental hazard and an observed health effect in an
observational study of animals (Fox 1991). These include probability, time
order, strength of association, specificity, and consistency on
replication, predictive performance, and coherence. The choice of study
design can have a major effect on the ability of a study to fulfill such
Our preliminary review of the animal sentinel literature has found that
some potentially useful study designs, such as case-control and cohort, are
under-utilized in animal sentinel research.